A minor conflict with major consequences
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Reviewing the goals and objectives of the business to help meet the needs of conflicting parties should result in better goal congruence, so that everyone is pulling in the same direction to move the business forward. Conflict that results in healthy competition cultivates innovation and inventiveness among employees. In times of conflict, there is a high sense of necessity that results into the emergence of divergent viewpoints among employees. Employees typically feel they have to develop new strategies and ways of conducting business in order to keep up with internal competition from their colleagues.
In instances where conflicting parties engage in extreme disagreement, sub-optimization may result. When conflicting parties push the pursuit of their own interest excessively, the organizations goals end up compromised. Instead of working together to achieve the organization's goals, conflicting parties engage in needless feuds that result in superiority contests.
In the long run, however, the community suffers from the negative effects of the conflict see following section.
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The interview findings on the role of the elders are particularly contrasting. On the one hand, the majority of Turkana and Pokot raiders report that the elders encourage or even assist their raids with blessings and information for example, where to find the enemy's livestock. On the other hand, most elders claim to discourage the raiding. One focus group discussion with both raiders and elders in Lokiriama was instrumental to match these seemingly opposing views. During times of peace with the Pokot, the elders discourage the youth to raid the Pokot, while during times of conflict, the elders hardly ever refuse a pre-raid blessing.
Women are found to have an influence on the raiding activity of their men. They either encourage their men and prepare meals after a successful raid, or they play a discouraging role, for example, by expressing their fear to lose their man. The village chiefs are in a difficult position. On the one hand, they are the representation of the national government on the ground and hence have to prevent or sanction raiding; on the other hand, they understand why the community engages in raiding.
The only group exclusively profiting from the raiding is the group of traders and businessmen which gets access to inexpensive livestock which they can sell for a higher price in urban centres such as Lodwar, Nairobi or Moroto in Uganda see also Eaton The traders are usually not part of the communities and hence do not experience the effects of the raiding and conflicts. Conflicts and livestock raiding affect the well-being of pastoral communities in various direct and indirect ways.
This section attempts to structure and analyse the complex effects by supplementing the results of the present study with findings of previous research. The top of Figure 3 lists the motives of raiding as identified earlier in the article. The effects most direct ones shown in bold of the raiding and conflict are discussed in detail below. Motives and effects of raiding and conflict in Turkana and Pokot. The most direct effect of raiding on human well-being is the loss of lives and injuries caused during the raids. In Figure 4 , the high number of deaths in relation to the number of injuries indicates that the availability of small arms has made raiding more deadly.
Injured and killed raiders reduce the labour available for livestock herding and community protection. As raiders are almost exclusively young men, the raiding does not only affect the community in short terms, but also reduces the future prosperity of the community. However, not only raiders fall victim to the conflicts. Even government officials are not spared as the killing of the assistant chief of Lokiriama, James Longorid Achuman shows. He was shot on 18 December together with his moped driver on the way from Lokiriama to Moroto, Uganda. As no money or valuables were stolen and the footprints of the attackers led to Uganda, the chief of Lokiriama, police forces and an NGO representative independently suggested that it was a revenge attack by the Pokot or Tepeth who recently lost several community members in a raid by the Turkana.
Beyond the physical impacts of the conflicts on humans, Pike et al. Number of raids, deaths and injuries during raids in Turkana between and The effects of conflict and raiding on livestock numbers can be both direct and indirect. Indirectly, raiding contributes to loss of livestock through the spread of diseases Bett et al.
The direct effect of raiding can be both positive for the raiding community and negative for the raided community. From the raider's perspective, raiding can appear to be an effective and direct tool to increase their own herd, at the cost of those who are raided. If two or a few groups in a confined area reciprocally raid each other without selling livestock to outside actors, the total number of livestock may remain fairly the same. However, the development of commercialisation see previous discussion has extracted large numbers from the traditional raiding circle, despite efforts of security forces to curb the trading of stolen livestock Eaton This number has to be treated with caution as raided communities tend to report higher numbers hoping to receive higher compensations Eaton Yet, the number points to the dimension of losses that some communities experience.
A reduction in livestock population, even by small numbers, is critical especially for the pastoralists who depend on livestock for income and food security. Similarly, it was reported that losing livestock also goes hand-in-hand with the loss of societal recognition. Without livestock, young men cannot marry as they are unable to pay dowry. Elders, functioning as communal judges, are suffering from loss of livestock, too. During focus group discussions in Turkana, elders complained that the youth does not respect them anymore. While in both communities, the loss of livestock due to raiding was a strong theme in the interviews, the accusations of the Turkana toward the Pokot undermining their livelihood were stronger.
Particularly for women and children, the loss of livestock whether caused by raiding, drought or disease can result in lack of nutrition Pike et al. Hence, hunger can be both an outcome and a motive of conflict as the interviews with the raiders in Turkana have shown Table 1.
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The conflict between the Turkana and the Pokot is mostly about livestock raiding which usually takes place in some distance to the villages. However, occasionally, bigger kraals and even entire villages are attacked. Based on the interviews and the TUPADO data, it is possible to define an approximate corridor where the conflicts between the Turkana and the Pokot are most intense with respect to the level of perceived insecurity and number of reported raiding incidences and attacked homesteads Figure 1.
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For example, 20 homesteads were reported to be looted and destroyed between and in and around Kaptur alone. In October , the village of Nauyapong was found abandoned due to insecurity caused by Turkana raiders. Only the school staff and the students had remained; they were constantly protected by the nearby military camp.
The rest of the Nauyapong community had moved south to more secure areas in and around Alale Figure 1. While the abandonment of entire settlements is a rare case, the loss of pasture and water points is a common phenomenon in conflict-prone rangelands of north-western Kenya. Eriksen and Lind point to the formation of loose grazing associations to expand territory. Watering points are a source of conflict particularly during dry periods. In Lokiriama, several exchanges of gunfire were witnessed between the Turkana and the Pokot who were trying to access the borehole at night.
In Lasak and Nauyapong, on the other hand, it was reported that the Turkana have recently started to steal maize and beehives because of hunger. Besides the direct loss of resources, the conflicts cause effects which indirectly reduce human well-being through insecurity. In both communities, there is an omnipresent perception of pronounced insecurity Figure 5.
When asked about the reason for the insecurity, the interviewees in both communities gave these replies: raids, conflicts or the enemy. Insecurity and the perception of it have three major effects, which in turn reduce human well-being: first, inefficient resource utilisation, second, closing of markets and schools and third, posing an obstacle for investments.
Similarly, it was observed that the rangelands south of Loya, located between the Turkana plains and the highlands of Pokot, were rich in pasture. Yet, neither of the two groups was accessing the area because of insecurity. The insecurity is further increased by highway robbery of bandits who take advantage of the power vacuum.
In addition, the underutilization of pasture bares the risk of encroachment of certain species which deplete the pasture or make it inaccessible Opiyo et al. Unused boreholes can become a source of livestock poisoning Mbaria et al. This concentration of people and livestock increases the likelihood of overuse of resources and poses a potential source of new conflict. The majority of respondents reported that they are afraid to move freely when conflicts are ongoing in the study area.
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Similarly, Kaimba et al. Women in Lokiriama and in the nearby villages Lobei and Urum reported that they have reduced the picking of wild berries because they are afraid to get killed or raped. This shows how insecurity undermines adaptation to drought as the picking of wild berries was reported to be an important strategy to adapt to water and pasture scarcity.
Perception of insecurity in southern Turkana left and northern Pokot right. In Turkana, 63 people were interviewed; in Pokot, The effects of insecurity on pastoral livelihoods go beyond a reduction of food resources. It was observed that livestock markets in Lokiriama and Loya are not used because of insecurity. The lack of secure markets limits the ability of the pastoralists to sell livestock prior to or during dry periods and hence contributes to food insecurity Barrett et al. During the three years of this study, Turkana reported that options to sell livestock to traders were limited as they were afraid of attacks on their way to Kitale or Nairobi.
Influx of grains and manufactured goods into Pokot and Turkana was also reported to be negatively affected by insecurity. The school in Lokiriama was temporarily closed when conflicts intensified, as teachers reported. Bullet holes in classroom buildings were still visible.
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The head teacher in Lobei expressed hope that the school grounds would soon be fenced off to prevent Pokot from getting close to the pupils. Insecurity does not only interrupt education; it also poses an obstacle for development. Today, Turkana is the poorest and most marginalised county in relatively rich Kenya.
For example, the construction of the road between Lokiriama and Lorengipi was stopped as the security of the construction workers could not be assured. Beyond the physical effects, insecurity negatively affects the inter-communal relations.
Community members of both Pokot and Turkana have expressed strong negative feelings and distrust towards the other group. The distrust decreases the motivation and the capability of the communities to choose a cooperative path which is a prerequisite for peaceful and effective resources sharing Eriksen and Lind Inter-communal relations particularly deteriorate when raids include the rape or abduction of women. Another response to such hostile attacks is retaliation which further fuels the conflict Eaton Overall, the results suggest that the asymmetry found in the motives of raiding does not translate into major differences in the perceived effects of the conflicts.
The destructiveness of the conflicts was stressed in both groups.
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The aim of this study was to understand the motives behind the raiding and to analyse the effects of the conflict on pastoral livelihoods. The major conflict motives are asymmetric. On the Turkana side, the reduction in pasture, water and livestock has made raiding the only survival alternative other than relying on food aid. Consequently, hunger and drought were identified as the main motives for raiding. On the Pokot side where pasture and water were available at the time of the research, the accumulation of wealth, payment of dowry and, to a lesser extent, the expansion of territory are found to be the strongest motives for raiding.
Among the most direct effects of the raiding are loss of human lives, reduced number of livestock as well as reduced access to water, pasture and even loss of homes. In addition, the conflicts lead to distrust in other communities and a strong omnipresent perception of insecurity which entails several and partly interconnected subsequent effects.